Are you ready to take your 4g to next generation 5g? may be not

As you may know, the forthcoming 5G cellular system is in its R&D phase, with lots of options being considered. I have been reading some of the technical research papers, mainly from the IEEE Communications Society. What I discovered is that this system is a significant leap beyond 4G LTE. The word “complex” doesn’t begin to describe it. For whatever it is worth, here are five items that will give you a glimpse at what is coming.
Goals of 5G
The objectives of 5G are not very different from the goals of 4G—namely, higher data rates, greater user capacity, and lower latency. The goal is to keep up with the growing number of subscribers worldwide, along with the gradual addition of more machine-to-machine (M2M) and Internet-of-Things (IoT) nodes. One suggested target is an 1000× increase over the current capacity.
The desire for that increased data rate stems from increased mobile Internet access and video downloads. 4G LTE-Advanced provides a maximum rate of 1 Gb/s, while the proposed goal for 5G is 10 Gb/s with a minimum of 100 Mb/s. The target for latency is less than one millisecond.
Achieving these goals requires three key things: 1) many more cell sites in the infrastructure; 2) greater bandwidth, meaning more spectrum; and 3) improved link efficiency. There are known methods for achieving each, but in-depth research is being devoted to figuring out which are best to include in the standard.
To achieve the data rate goal requires more bandwidth per base station. Minimum typical bandwidth needs are about 200 MHz, while several GHz is required even with m-QAM to get to the 10 Gb/s level. The current mix of cellular spectrum, even if aggregated, just isn’t enough. Some have suggested that the use of cognitive radio techniques may work to share lower frequency spectrum (e.g., 2.3 GHz and 3.6 GHz). The obvious solution is much higher frequencies like the millimeter (mm) wave bands. Some proposed segments are 28, 38, 60, 70, and 90 GHz. No doubt a mix of technologies will be used, and they will be different with each carrier or country. More spectrum haggling is expected.
While these mm frequencies offer the bandwidth needed, they have a downside—namely, a more limited range. Physics dictates that as frequency increases, range correspondingly decreases. And line of sight (LOS) is a must in most cases. This will mean more base stations and the use of greater power and/or beam steering antennas.